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4.2 Ecocide, Ethnocide Extractivism and Land Grabbing FINAL VERSION FOR PLENARY

Submitted by Papa Meissa Dieng on Sun, 03/12/2017 - 14:43

4 Country: This is a Joint-Resolution by Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger and Senegal

5 Preamble:

6 Contextually, one should not quote Pdt Jomo Kenyatta who said, "When the whites came

7 to Africa, we had the land and they had the Bible, and they taught us to pray with our

8 eyes closed and when we opened our eyes, the whites had the land and we have the

9 Bible."

10 Colonial pattern of "Deculturation" and "Re-culturation".

11 All over the world, we live the intensification of the industrial exploitation of "natural

12 resources". The justification is everywhere the same: "the jobs are lacking, the States are

13 indebted, the Extractivism is a factor of growth and it would be crazy not to profit from

14 it".

15

16 Extractivism of raw materials accelerates the phenomenon of land grabbing which both

17 take to nature without rendering: it is a waste.

18 In countries as, Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal, etc., there is no reversal of

19 prospects. We cannot imagine other trajectories.

20 Extractivism and its corollary of land grabbing are both the engine and the fuel of growth

21 and it is difficult to "detoxify" it as the project Orinoco Mining Arch in Venezuela. More

22 raw materials and more energy to extract as in Niger and Senegal exploitation of mineral

23 resources (uranium, gold and oil; is an endless leak.

24 This link between energy, minerals and lands to be conquered is the modern metaphysics

25 of predation on the planet. Mongolia with the creation of “Global Eco Zone”, and Niger

26 with the Green belt of Niamey ame to find another way to react and function.

27 We are faced with a nature that has been completely modified by fire: Fossil Energy.

28

29 Operative Text:

30 Faced with the increasing scale of the phenomenon in recent years and the apprehension

31 of populations and civil society organizations, in Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal,

32 etc., have been called upon to engage in processes to define land management and /

33 Resource.

34 In this context, we Global Greens:

35 • Recognize, the existence of national initiatives, but still insufficient to allow to

36 really fight against the extractivism and the grabbing of land in Venezuela, Mongolia,

37 Niger, Senegal, etc.

38 • Urges States to implement and coherently implement all the tools currently

39 adopted (Voluntary Guidelines on Land Governance, Guidelines for

40 Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, Guidelines for

41 Multinational Enterprises), to develop Binding investment frameworks for private

42 and public economic actors.

43 •

44 • Support the Party “Movimiento Ecológico de Venezuela” in their actions to stop

45 the project Orinoco Mining Arch considered as the beginning of the biggest

46 environmental destruction internationally qualified as crime of “Ecocide” and

47 “Ethnocide” of all Venezuelan history.

48 • Calls on the Southern States, as Niger, while respecting the rights and

49 potentialities of the populations and their local cultures, to stop evading their

50 responsibilities by subcontracting the development, financing and implementation

51 of projects to private economic actors.

52 • Global Greens welcomes the mobilization of the Greens of: Niger, Mongolia and

53 Senegal around these vital issues and calls on the Nigerien and Senegalese

54 authorities to put an end to this process of Land grabbing and forest destruction,

55 the Mongolian government to protect the national vulnerable environment and

56 sustainable development process.

57 Background Text

58 Nowadays, land is rarely vacant. They are most often occupied by local populations, who

59 do not own titles but exploit them to meet their needs.

60 Extractivism as a polysemic concept refers to the means and strategies of industrial

61 exploitation of Nature when it comes to extracting natural resources (no return and

62 directly into the natural environment) with little, no difficulty, slowly or costly

63 renewables. What is extracted can be molecules, materials and materials, living

64 organisms (plants, fungi, animals) or energy (e.g. uranium, fossil hydrocarbons, and

65 wood-energy).

66 Land grabbing is defined as the acquisition (leasing, concession or purchase) by private

67 or public actors, large areas of cultivation abroad and long-term (often between 30 and 99

68 years) for the production of foodstuffs or agrofuels for export.

69 For the "hoarders", the main objective is agricultural food production or agro fuels.

70 Harvests may be wholly or partly exported. Foreign investors are public players

71 (sovereign wealth funds, public enterprises) and private investors (multinationals,

72 pension funds, banks).

73 The main investor countries are China, the United States, Japan, the Gulf States, India,

74 Libya and Egypt. The targeted states are predominantly in East Africa, Asia and Latin

75 America, with large areas of arable land, access to water and a favorable climate.

76 Investor host states are predominantly developing countries that accept these contracts

77 pending counterparties (silos, roads, agricultural structures, jobs, etc.). Host country

78 governments act as facilitators through national agencies and ministries of agriculture.

79 In Venezuela:

80 Orinoco Mining Arch is the name given by the Venezuelan government to decree 2.248,

81 which will allow mining operations in an area located at Bolivar State. It comprises parts

82 of the Amazon and Amacuro Delta, with a total extension of 111.843,70 km2 (5 times

83 larger than El Salvador, Kuwait and Israel, 3 times larger than Belgium, 2 times larger

84 than Denmark and twice the size of Guatemala, Austria, Portugal, Iceland, Ireland,

85 among others). This area will be given to 150 mining companies from all over the world.

86 This is zone is rich in biodiversity (it’s part of the Amazon forest), comprising many

87 forests considered national reserves, such as Imataca, La Paragua and El Carua, Guanay

88 and other protected water basins, such as Cuenca del Canoí, od 96 thousand km2, which

89 is the largest freshwater supplier in the country and provides 70% of hydroelectricity,

90 feeding the plants of Gurí, Macagua and Caruachi.

91 Based on our consistent opposition to the Decree on Orinoco Mining Arch, in order to

92 defend the Amazon and Indigenous Populations, the Venezuelan Greens, ask the Global

93 Greens Congress to reject the previously mentioned Decree, because we consider it’s the

94 biggest “ecocide and ethnocide” in the world.

95 In Mongolia

96 Mongolian territory location is much centered in the Asia and World as well, all rivers go

97 to the Russia and China, therefore sound water management is not national problem but it

98 is international issue.

99 In order to make Mongolia as a special “Global Eco Zone” regarding World ecosystem is

100 highly correlated with Mongolian vulnerable environment and sustainable development

101 process to start international Green movement initiative.

102 WEM goal could be reached through implementing mega projects on reorganizing

103 agricultural and mining sites in desert areas in line with Green Growth strategy during the

104 2020-2035 years.

105 In Niger

106 Uranium extraction for several decades and their dramatic consequences on the health of

107 people, animals and flora; the contamination of air, soil and water by radioactivity in the

108 zones of increasingly massive use of cyanide in the exploitation of gold in Niger and the

109 irreversible degradation of the vegetation cover and their negative consequences as much

110 on the health of the people as on the environment.

111 Considering the irreversible degradation of the environment in all areas of high

112 exploitation of mineral resources; uranium, gold and oil... Nigerien Greens party calls on

113 the Nigerien authorities to give more importance to environmental governance, especially

114 strengthening the legal arsenal for the protection of the environment in Niger.

115 Considering that the Green belt of Niamey covering an area of 2 331,35 hectares was

116 created in 1965 to regulate the climate at the level of the capital; and is classified as a

117 public utility; threatened with extinction due to land speculation and private housing

118 estates;

119 Nigerien Greens party calls for Resolution on the rehabilitation of the Green belt of

120 Niamey, the classified forests of Niger and stop land grabbing of pastoral and cultural

121 areas in Niger.

Congress: 

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