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4.1 Ecocide, Ethnocide Extractivism and Land Grabbing

Country: This is a Joint-Resolution by Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger and Senegal


Contextually, one should not quote Pdt Jomo Kenyatta who said, "When the whites came to Africa, we had the land and they had the Bible, and they taught us to pray with our eyes closed and when we opened our eyes, the whites had the land and we have the Bible."

Colonial pattern of "Deculturation" and "Re-culturation".

All over the world, we live the intensification of the industrial exploitation of "natural resources".  The justification is everywhere the same: "the jobs are lacking, the States are indebted, the Extractivism is a factor of growth and it would be crazy not to profit from it".

Extractivism of raw materials accelerates the phenomenon of land grabbing which both take to nature without rendering: it is a waste.

In countries as, Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal, etc., there is no reversal of prospects. We cannot imagine other trajectories.

Extractivism and its corollary of land grabbing are both the engine and the fuel of growth and it is difficult to "detoxify" it as the project Orinoco Mining Arch in Venezuela. More raw materials and more energy to extract as in Niger and Senegal exploitation of mineral resources (uranium, gold and oil; is an endless leak.

This link between energy, minerals and lands to be conquered is the modern metaphysics of predation on the planet. Mongolia with the creation of “Global Eco Zone”, and Niger with the Green belt of Niamey ame to find another way to react and function.

We are faced with a nature that has been completely modified by fire: Fossil Energy.    

Operative Text:

Faced with the increasing scale of the phenomenon in recent years and the apprehension of populations and civil society organizations, in Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal, etc., have been called upon to engage in processes to define land management and / Resource.

In this context, we Global Greens:

  • Recognize, the existence of national initiatives, but still insufficient to allow to really fight against the extractivism and the grabbing of land in Venezuela, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal, etc.
  • Urges States to implement and coherently implement all the tools currently adopted (Voluntary Guidelines on Land Governance, Guidelines for Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises), to develop Binding investment frameworks for private and public economic actors.

  • Support the Party “Movimiento Ecológico de Venezuela” in their actions to stop the project Orinoco Mining Arch considered as the beginning of the biggest “Ecocide” and “Ethnocide” of all Venezuelan history.

  • Calls on the Southern States, as Niger, while respecting the rights and potentialities of the populations and their local cultures, to stop evading their responsibilities by subcontracting the development, financing and implementation of projects to private economic actors.

  • Global Greens welcomes the mobilization of the Greens of: Niger, Mongolia and Senegal around these vital issues and calls on the Nigerien and Senegalese authorities to put an end to this process of Land grabbing and forest destruction, the Mongolian government to protect the national vulnerable environment and sustainable development process.

Background Text

Nowadays, land is rarely vacant. They are most often occupied by local populations, who do not own titles but exploit them to meet their needs.

Extractivism as a polysemic concept refers to the means and strategies of industrial exploitation of Nature when it comes to extracting natural resources (no return and directly into the natural environment) with little, no difficulty, slowly or costly renewables. What is extracted can be molecules, materials and materials, living organisms (plants, fungi, animals) or energy (e.g. uranium, fossil hydrocarbons, and wood-energy).

Land grabbing is defined as the acquisition (leasing, concession or purchase) by private or public actors, large areas of cultivation abroad and long-term (often between 30 and 99 years) for the production of foodstuffs or agrofuels for export.

For the "hoarders", the main objective is agricultural food production or agro fuels. Harvests may be wholly or partly exported. Foreign investors are public players (sovereign wealth funds, public enterprises) and private investors (multinationals, pension funds, banks).

The main investor countries are China, the United States, Japan, the Gulf States, India, Libya and Egypt. The targeted states are predominantly in East Africa, Asia and Latin America, with large areas of arable land, access to water and a favorable climate.

Investor host states are predominantly developing countries that accept these contracts pending counterparties (silos, roads, agricultural structures, jobs, etc.). Host country governments act as facilitators through national agencies and ministries of agriculture.

In Venezuela:

Orinoco Mining Arch is the name given by the Venezuelan government to decree 2.248, which will allow mining operations in an area located at Bolivar State. It comprises parts of the Amazon and Amacuro Delta, with a total extension of 111.843,70 km2 (5 times larger than El Salvador, Kuwait and Israel, 3 times larger than Belgium, 2 times larger than Denmark and twice the size of Guatemala, Austria, Portugal, Iceland, Ireland, among others). This area will be given to 150 mining companies from all over the world.

This is zone is rich in biodiversity (it’s part of the Amazon forest), comprising many forests considered national reserves, such as Imataca, La Paragua and El Carua, Guanay and other protected water basins, such as Cuenca del Canoí, od 96 thousand km2, which is the largest freshwater supplier in the country and provides 70% of hydroelectricity, feeding the plants of Gurí, Macagua and Caruachi.

Based on our consistent opposition to the Decree on Orinoco Mining Arch, in order to defend the Amazon and Indigenous Populations, the Venezuelan Greens, ask the Global Greens Congress to reject the previously mentioned Decree, because we consider it’s the biggest “ecocide and ethnocide” in the world.

In Mongolia

Mongolian territory location is much centered in the Asia and World as well, all rivers go to the Russia and China, therefore sound water management is not national problem but it is international issue.

In order to make Mongolia as a special “Global Eco Zone” regarding World ecosystem is highly correlated with Mongolian vulnerable environment and sustainable development process to start international Green movement initiative.

WEM goal could be reached through implementing mega projects on reorganizing agricultural and mining sites in desert areas in line with Green Growth strategy during the 2020-2035 years.

In Niger

Uranium extraction for several decades and their dramatic consequences on the health of people, animals and flora; the contamination of air, soil and water by radioactivity in the zones of increasingly massive use of cyanide in the exploitation of gold in Niger and the irreversible degradation of the vegetation cover and their negative consequences as much on the health of the people as on the environment.

Considering the irreversible degradation of the environment in all areas of high exploitation of mineral resources; uranium, gold and oil... Nigerien Greens party calls on the Nigerien authorities to give more importance to environmental governance, especially strengthening the legal arsenal for the protection of the environment in Niger.

Considering that the Green belt of Niamey covering an area of 2 331,35 hectares was created in 1965 to regulate the climate at the level of the capital; and is classified as a public utility; threatened with extinction due to land speculation and private housing estates;

Nigerien Greens party calls for Resolution on the rehabilitation of the Green belt of Niamey, the classified forests of Niger and stop land grabbing of pastoral and cultural areas in Niger.    

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